Terry Towel Testing methods

Important Test Procedures for Terry Towel Testing

Terry towel is a textile product and generally it is a pile fabric, usually woven of cotton, with uncut loops on both sides, used for bath towels and robes. Terry towel testing is very important work or process, because it is export oriented industry. For controlling quality of terry towel, different types of testing methods are applied. The quality of terry towel depends on the different weaving structures, different pile heights, yarns made of different fibers & some of the fabrics finished.

Generally, terry towels are made on a loom & standard finishing techniques are applied. Comfort parameters of gray & finished fabrics such as air-permeability, velocity of water absorption, and vapor permeability are measured under standard laboratory conditions. In this article I will discuss different terry towel testing process with details.

Terry Towel Testing methods
Fig: Terry towel testing

Important Test Procedures for Terry Towel Testing:

Test procedure of some common & important terry towel testing is described bellow in detail:

1. Tensile Strength Test:

It is very important test among other terry towel testing. This test is done in order to determine the tensile strength of a towel tensile strength is tested in Tensile Strength Tester in Grab Test Principle. The test procedure is described bellow in detail:

Test Procedure:

  • This test is done according to the ASTM  D 5034 Method.
  • The Tensile Strength Tester is provided with two jaws; one fixed (bottom jaw) & another movable (top jaw).
  • At first samples are taken from the towel by using a template. The size of the sample is 4 inch×6 inch.
  • Then the sample is clumped between two jaws & then the m/c is started.
  • As the distance between two jaws increases; eventually the sample breaks. Tensile strength of the sample is shown on the digital display in kg unit.
  • Two samples from warp & two samples from weft are tested & the average tensile strength of sample in warp & weft direction is reported separately.

2. Tear Strength Test:

This test is done in order to determine the tear strength of a towel. The test procedure is described bellow in detail.

Test Procedure:

  • This test is done according to the ASTM  D 1424 Method.
  • At first samples having size (100×33 mm) are cut from the towel that to be tested by using a template.
  • Two samples from warp & two samples from weft are tested.
  • The sample is mounted in the jaw of the tester.
  • Then the sample is torn by pulling the knife.
  • Then the indicator is taken in the null position.
  • Then the scale plate is released by loosening a knob.
  • As the movement of the scale plate stops, then the reading of the scale is taken from the position of the indicator on the scale plate.
  • Two samples from warp & two samples from weft are tested. & the average tensile strength of sample in warp & weft direction is reported separately.

3. Absorbency Test:

Absorbency is one of the most important properties of terry towel. Absorbency test is done in order to determine the absorbency % of the given sample (towel). The test is done by using absorbency tester. The test procedure is described bellow in detail.

Test Procedure:

  • This test is done according to the AATCC  140-2010 Method.
  • At first the sample is taken & that is clumped in the stand in such way that only the pile containing portion of a towel can absorb water.
  • A basin is placed beneath the stand for collecting residual water after absorption.
  • Then 50 ml water is taken in a measuring cylinder. So the 1st Reading is always 50ml.
  • Then the water is given in to the test kit & the stand is kept for absorption for 33 seconds.
  • After 33 seconds the towel is taken away with the clump.
  • Then the residual water, that has not been absorbed by the towel & has collected in the basin, is taken in to a measuring cylinder & the reading is taken. This is the 2nd Reading.

And finally absorbency % is calculated by the following formula:

Absorbency% = {(1st Reading × 2) – (2nd Reading × 2)} × 2

In this way absorbency of terry towel is tested.

4. Shrinkage Test:

Two types of shrinkage test are done. These are:

  1. Test for Dimensional Stability (Body Shrinkage) &
  2. Test for Differential Shrinkage.

A. Test for Dimensional Stability (Body Shrinkage):

This test is done for determination of dimensional stability of towels. The test procedure is described bellow in detail.

Test Procedure:

  • This test is done according to AATCC 138-2010 Method.
  • At first 3 pairs of mark is given on the surface of the specimen towel by using a template & textile marker.
  • Then the specimen towel is washed in water for 3 times in AATCC Washer. Among three wash, 1st & 3rd are hot wash & the 2nd one is hot wash (600C).
  • Then the specimen towel is conditioned in the stand at relaxed state. Conditioning is done at 21-220C temperature for at least 6 hours or more.
  • Then the shrinkage is tested by using shrinkage scale.
  • Reading is taken both in warp & weft direction. In each case reading is taken in three distinct points based on the 6 marks given before washing.
  • Usually two marks of each line are shrinks; therefore the reading become –ve; that indicates shrinkage.
  • Finally the average shrinkage is reported separately for warp & weft direction.

B. Test for Differential Shrinkage:

This test is done for determination of differential shrinkage of towels. The test procedure is described bellow in detail.

Test Procedure:

  • This test is done according to the AATCC  140-2010 Method.
  • At first the specimen towel is washed in water for 3 times in AATCC Washer. Among three wash, 1st & 3rd are hot wash & the 2nd one is hot wash (600C).
  • Then the specimen towel is conditioned in the stand at relaxed state. Conditioning is done at 21-220C temperature for at least 6 hours or more.
  • Then the width of the towel is measured in two narrowest points i.e.; at the two fancy design & the average of this two reading is taken.
  • Then the width of the towel is measured at the centre.
  • Finally the reading of the average width of the two narrowest points is subtracted from the width of the centre of the towel & thereby the differential shrinkage is obtained.

Differential shrinkage = Reading of the average width of the two narrowest

Points – Width of the towel at the centre.

In this way differential shrinkage of terry towel is tested.

5. Linting Test:

Lints are the fuzzy loose fibers that are extracted from the towels during tumbling followed by washing treatment. Linting test is done in order to find out the % of linting tendency of towels. The test procedure is described bellow in detail.

Test Procedure:

  • This test is done according to the CTL WW 104 Method.
  • At first the specimen towel is weighted.
  • Then specimen towel is washed in AATCC Washer for 5 times.
  • After each wash the specimen towel is dried in tumbling process in AATCC Drier.
  • The AATCC Drier is provided with a net for collecting lints. After each drying lints are collected from the net.
  • All the lints collected in 5 drying are then weighted.

And finally the % of linting is calculated by the following formula:

Linting % = {(Weight Of Towel – Weight Of Lint) ÷ Weight Of Towel} × 100

In this process linting test is done.

6. Caustic & Enzyme extraction Test:

Amount of residual caustic & enzyme in a given towel is tested by this test.

7. pH Test:

This test is performed in order to test the amount of PH in the towel. The test procedure is described bellow in detail:

Test Procedure:

  • This test is done according to the AATCC  81-2006 Method.
  • At first the towel is immersed in the water & kept for 20 mins.
  • The water is then taken in to a small test beaker.
  • Then the PH meter is calibrated.
  • Then the electrode of the PH meter is immersed into the water the PH of the towel is shown in the display.

8. Test For Assessing Color Fastness To Rubbing/Crocking:

This test is done by using Crock Meter. The test procedure is described bellow in detail:

Test Procedure:

  • This test is done according to the AATCC  8-2007 Method.
  • At first the sample is taken the sample is clipped in the sample stand & a staining fabric is clipped in the nose.
  • Then the nose is rubbed against the sample for 10 times by using a handle.
  • At first rubbing is done in wet condition, and then again rubbing is done in dry condition with another piece of staining fabric.
  • Then the staining fabrics are assessed visually for determining staining & a grade is assigned to the sample.

9. Test For Assessing Color Fastness To Wash:

This test is done for determination of color fastness of towels to wash. The test procedure is described bellow in detail.

Test Procedure:

  • This test is done according to AATCC  61-2010 Method.
  • At first 5 gm sample is taken in a conical flask.
  • Then the sample is treated in 0.5 gm/ltr soap & 0.2 gm/ltr soda at 600C for 40 mins in oscillating dyeing m/c.
  • Then the sample is washed in cold water for three times then squeezed & then dried.
  • Finally the sample is assessed visually & a rating is assigned to it.

10. Test For Assessing Color Fastness To Water:

This test is done for determination of color fastness of towels to water. The test procedure is described bellow in detail.

Test Procedure:

  • This test is done according to AATCC  107-2009 Method.
  • At first 5×5 cm sample (towel) & 6×6 cm multi fiber is taken.
  • Then the combined weight of sample & multi fiber is taken.
  • Then the combined weight of sample & multi fiber is multiplied with 2.5 or 3
  • Now distilled water is taken in a beaker & the towel sample is immersed into the water & then hand squeezed in such way that after squeezing its weight become equal or at least nearly equal to the combined weight of sample & multi fiber × 2.5 (or 3).
  • Then the sample & multi fiber should be placed between two plates of the test kit; placing the multi fiber above.
  • Then all the other plates of the test kit are placed in position & then the top plate is placed over them.
  • Now 4.5 kg weight is placed on the top plate & then the top plate is screwed tightly; then the weight is removed.
  • Then the test kit should be kept in hot air oven at 380C temperature for 18 hours.
  • After 18 hours the towel sample & the multi fiber are taken out from the test kit .
  • Then the sample is dried at 56-600C temperature for 10-20 minutes. Then conditioning is done.
  • Finally the sample & multi fiber are assessed visually for assessment of color fading of the sample & staining to the multi fiber & a rating is assigned to the sample.

11. Test For Assessing Color Fastness To Non Chlorine Bleach:

This test is done for the dyed yarns; that are mostly used for selvedge formation. The objective of this test is to asses the amount of color bleeding from the dyed yarns.

Two different recipes are used for P/C & Cotton yarn during testing color fastness to non chlorine bleach. The recipes are given bellow:

Recipe For Polyester Yarn
Serial No. Chemical Quantity
1. Silicate 4.5 gm/ltr
2. NBA 10 gm/ltr
3. WBL 10 gm/ltr
4. Peroxide   6 gm/ltr
5. Caustic 18 gm/ltr
Recipe For Cotton Yarn
Serial No. Chemical Quantity
1. Reecowet EL 2    gm/ltr
2. Silicate 6    gm/ltr
3. Peroxide 5    gm/ltr
4. Caustic 0.5 gm/ltr

The test procedure is described bellow in detail:

Test Procedure:

  • At first 5 gm sample is taken from the towel that to be tested.
  • Then the solution is prepared according to the recipe.
  • Then the solution is taken in to the sample can of the launder-o-meter.
  • Then the sample is placed in the sample can of launder-o-meter together with a staining fabric & then the mouth of the cans is closed.
  • Then the sample cans are placed into the launder-o-meter. The launder-o-meter contains glycerin inside it. The sample cans are rotated in the glycerin for 5 hours at 60-800C temperature.
  • Then the sample is washed in water at room temperature & then dried.
  • Then the staining fabrics & the dyed yarns are assisted visually & the sample is given a rating.

For terry towel testing, these are the most striking tests that are done for quality control of Terry towel.

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