Apparel manufacturing is a complex and huge lengthy process. Thousands of terminologies are used in garment industry to operate production and business. As a textile and apparel professional, it is very essential to know those apparel terms or glossary for proper communicate. Besides, those apparel terms and definitions are used by people directly or indirectly related to Garment/Apparel/Clothing Industry. But it is very critical task tto memorize these huge numbers technical apparel terms or inco terms. In this article I will explain only 200 technical apparel terms and definitions.
Essential Apparel Terms and Definitions:
1. Across Back: The horizontal measurement on the backside along the middle point between nape and scye depth is called Across Back.
2. Arm Scye: The sleeve’s armhole of a garment is called the Arm Scye.
3. Allowance: Garments are produced adding some extra measurement with the body measurement which is called Allowance. This apparel terms used in fabric cutting.
4. Appliqué: In order to increase the beauty of garments some extra fabrics are attached with the face side of the garments which is called Appliqué.
5. Back Rise: The length extended from crotch/crotch to center back waistline is called Back Rise.
6. Back Tacking: At the time of starting or ending sewing along the sewn ends about 1.5 cm is sewn back for ensuring not easily open (unsewn) the ends, this is called Back Tacking.
7. Backing: Some portions of garments are required to bear with external pressure and for protection, the inside of those portions are reinforced with lining or any other pieces of fabrics. This is called Backing.
8. Balance: Maintaining adjustment with the body the weight, shape and external adjustment of the various parts of garments, specially the adjustment of front and back length, is called the Balance.
9. Basic Block: The pattern which is made according to the dimension and shape of human body out without any allowance or style is called the Basic Block.
10. Bartack: Bartacking is a process of sewing which is done without a very small length. In this process once sewing is done and again second time sewing is done on it in order to increase load bearing capacity of that place (for example, bartacks are done on beltloop, corner of the pockets etc.)
11. Basting: For availing the facility of placing garment components at the right place, the initially done temporary sewing is called basting. It can be done by hand or by machine.
12. Bespoke: Bespoke are those garments which are made for specific person by taking the measurements of the specific person, which are different from readymade garments.
13. Button Size: The crosswise measurement of a button is called button size, which is generally expressed as linge or ligne. I ligne = 0.635 mm.
14. Button Stand: The distance from the center point of button to the end of garments is called button stand. Normally button stand = ½ + ½ cm of button with or = 1 cm.
15. Bast Point: The most prominent place (nipple) of the chest is called the bast point.
16. Bodice: The portion of the female dress which is extended from neck to waist is called bodice.
17. Bagging out: It is a special process with which after attaching lining or facing inside the garments the fabric is turned back and placed in front of the garment.
18. Blocking out: The system of cutting and separating some portion of a multiple layered lay of fabric is called blocking out. From this block the small patterns are cut with the help of band knife or die-cut machine.
19. Bundle: The system in which some pieces of the same part (single part) of a garment are temporarily put together is called bundle and which is helpful for easy transportation.
20. Blind Stitch: This is a special type of stitching which sew the fabric by partially penetrating the fabric instead of full penetrating. In the place of such stitching, the sewing thread is not visible from the front side but it is visible from the back side of the fabric.
21. Back Stitch: For sewing garments, this is one kind of hand stitch, which can be done through machines also.
22. Blowing: In garments pressing machine, the process of flowing air to the outside through the pressing buck is called blowing which is the contrast of vacuum.
23. Bluff edge: The portion of garments outside the sewing line at the end of garments is called bluff edge.
24. Bodkin: The small device for making hole in fabrics is called bodkin.
25. Box pleat: Fabrics are folded and given special shape for which along that place fabrics may be stretched. Such portion is called pleat. One specific kind of pleat is called box pleat.
26. C.B. Line: The straight line from top to bottom along the middle point of the body back part of shirt is called C.B. Line (Center back line).
27. C.F. Line: In the front side of a shirt, the line from collar to the bottom on which buttons are attached is called C.F. Line (Center Front Line).
28. Catch: Along the opening places of garments, a piece of fabric or a lining of other material, which is used for attaching button or zipper is called catch. For example, fly catch, button catch etc.
29. Chalk: Thin triangular or rectangular shaped pipe clay material which is used for making on the fabrics is called chalk.
30. Channel: With multiple layers of fabrics, narrow and long passage is made in garments which is called channel. Generally channel is made for entering cord or that type of material through it.
31. Check spikes: It is a pin of 15-20 cm long steel which is used for check matching during spreading of check fabrics.
32. Cheese: This is a cylindrical package for yarn, in which cross-winded yarns are kept and it has no flange.
33. Chest piece: In the chest area of garments one or more than one layer of interlining is used which is called chest piece. For making good shape along the chest area, for holding the shape and strengthening, it is used inside the garments.
34. Closing: It is an operation by which side seams of garments are joined or lining is attached with the forepart.
35. CMT: It is an abbreviation and the full meaning of which is cut-make-trim. This means the garments order supplier will provide fabrics and design/style and the garments manufacturer’s duty will be to cut that fabric and after making the garments as per the supplied style, will deliver it to the order supplier. It is one of the most important apparel terms used in garment industry.
36. Collar: It is a part of garments which remains extended round the neck.
37. Collar stand: It is the part of a collar which stands on the top side along the neck.
38. Crutch/Cortch: The point at which the inside seam of two legs meet together is called crotch. This is also called the fork of a pant.
39. Cuff: It is the most lower part of the sleeve of a shirt.
40. Cut-in-one: Combining two parts of garments and cutting the fabric as a single part is called cut-in-one. For example, cutting of bodice and collar as a single part.
41. Contour stitching: It is the fine stitching done automatically along the very near of end line in any part of a garment.
42. Cone: It is a conical form around which yarn is winded and yarn package is made.
43. Core-spun-thread: It is a special type of sewing thread which has filament at the center and staple fiber at the outer side.
44. Clem: It is a very small dart which is created by sewing but the fabric is not cut.
45. Color bleeding: When the colored fabric is soaked in water or in solvent if the color of the fabric goes in water or the color goes from one part to the other of the same fabric, then it is called color bleeding.
46. Crease: Any kind of crease in fabrics that is created intentionally or unintentionally is called crease.
47. Crocking: The process of rubbing out color from dry or wet fabric is called crocking.
48. Coverall: This is one kind of garment where pant and shirt together are considered as one piece garment and which is used for wearing during work period. There is system in the garment for attaching it with hand wrist and leg ankle.
49. Dart: In order to remove the wedge shape from the back of garment a desired shape is created by sewing or by fabric cutting and then sewing which is called dart.
50. Disposable garments: Those garments which are used one time only and then discarded are called disposable garments.
51. Dimensional stability: The quality of retention of dimension, shape or size of fabrics or garments is called dimensional stability.
52. Double breast: Of the two fronts of coat or overcoat, if one front is placed on the other and if buttons or button holes are used in both the fonts, then it is called double breasted garment. Generally the buttons and button holes are placed slightly deviated from the front line.
53. Double faced: Those fabrics whose both sides are a like or both sides can be kept in the front are called double faced.
54. Double, Cutting on the: Combining the two selvedges of fabrics and keeping the front side of the fabric inside, if the fabric is divided into two equal haves by cutting lengthwise of the two layers, then it is called double, cutting on the.
55. Darning: Rectifying of the defects in fabrics or in garments with the help of needle and thread is called darning or mending.
56. Draft: Drawing or drafting of the various parts of a garment on the plain surface or on papers based on the body or garments measurements is called draft.
57. Drape: If a fabric is hung from an end then the appearance that appears at the hanging end of the fabric is called the draping quality of the fabric. The draping quality of fabrics depends on construction of fabrics, fiber classification and the finishing of fabrics.
58. Dummy: A model of the exact shape of a human body that is kept standing on a stand is called the dummy. It is frequently used for checking the fitting of garments. Dummy of various sizes are available for mens, ladies and kids. This apparel terms used in displaying apparels.
59. Donkey: This is a special type of pressing board with which garments can be pressed without making crease marks on various parts.
60. Drop loop: The process of making belt loop on the waistband slightly down from the upper end (generally 1-2cm) is called drop loop. If drop loop is done, there is no possibility of the belt to go upward from the waist band.
61. Durable press: It is a special type of finishing treatment by which specific shape, dimension, crease and pleat can be given permanent stay on fabrics or garments and in spite of washing or wearing of the garments this quality is not lost.
62. Drilling: In order to making the specific place or point in garments, specially for the convenience of attaching pockets, the process of hole making on fabrics with machine from top to bottom of the fabric layers is called drilling.
63. Ease: For easy movement of hands, legs and other different parts of body and for increasing the comfort in using garment, the system of using more fabrics with garments parts than the body measurement is called ease.
64. Easing-in: During seam making, the creation of fullness, shape etc. along the seams in garments by using a piece of fabric to some extent larger measurement, is called easing-in.
65. Ends: Vertical yarns of fabrics are called ends.
66. Epaulet: The straps that are used along the shoulders of coats. Jackets, sports shirts etc. are called epaulet. The main function of epaulet is to control the unnecessary expansion of garment along the shoulder.
67. Facing: Along the ends of some parts of garments one layer of fabric is sewn inside, such layer is called facing. Generally facing is made keeping the similarity of shape of the end of the garment.
68. Face: The correct side or the front side of fabric is called face.
69. Faced cloth: If the correct side of the fabric is different from the opposite side then it is called faced cloth. For example, pile fabric, flannel fabric etc.
70. Fall: The portion of garments collar, which starting from the collar folding line comes down upto the end of the collar is called fall.
71. Fit: Whether a garment matches the correct size and shape is called fit.
72. Fitting: If a garment is properly adjustable to body or the wearer feels comfort wearing it, then it is called fitting.
73. Flare: The design which is extended from top to bottom is called flare. In this design, larger width fabric is attached to the lower portion of the garment, for example, skirt, frock etc.
74. Fly front: Fly front is a part of a garment made with fabric along the openings used for concealing zipper or buttons.
75. Flap: The part of a garment which is used for covering the pocket opening as called flap.
76. Fore part: The front parts of a garment which is used for the top part of human body are called fore part.
77. Fork: The place where the two legs of trousers are joined is called fork.
78. Front rise: The length from the crutch to the front of waist band of a garment is called front rise.
79. Fullness: In some parts of a garment, some extra fabric is attached to get a desired shape. This type of shape is called fullness. For example, sleeve head.
80. Fusing: The process with the help of which fusible interlining is attached with the garment’s parts is called fusing.
81. Fore arm line: The line drawn directly from the front armhole to the thumb via the front side of the sleeve is called front arm line.
82. Fagot stitch: This is one kind of lock stitch is produced in one kind of zigzag machine and keeping a slight gap between two fabrics, they are joined with zigzag stitch.
83. Gathering: The process of sewing of fabrics by shortening the length through small folds or wrinkles is called gathering.
84. Gauge: It is used as a unit for measuring of very small length or gap or thickness.
85. Gorge: It is the end of the forepart of a garment with which collar stand is joined.
86. Gore: The extended width at the lower side that is along the hemline of a garment is called the gore.
87. Grading: The process of making patterns of different sizes of garments from the master pattern is called grading.
88. Grain: The length wise direction of fabric is called grain.
89. Grain line: In each pattern, a straight arrow line is drawn which is called grain line. It indicates the direction for placing the pattern grain line keeping parallel with the fabric grain. It is very important apparel terms.
90. Gusset: An extra fabric is used for strengthening some parts of garments or for the convenience of fitting, or for beautification of shape which is called gusset.
91. Grinning: If any gap is created due to applying crosswise force along the seams then it is called grinning. It is a seam defect.
92. Gimp: During the button hole stitching, s special thread is used for rising the stitches which is called gimp.
93. Gun flap: Along the French Coat shoulder, additional fabric layer is used as special style which is called gun flap.
94. Grown-on-facing: The making of facing by folding the end of fabric toward the inner side (under the fabric) is called grown-on-facing.
95. Godet: A circular fabric is used in the inner side of the seams for increasing the thickness/fullness of seams which is called godet.
96. Handle: The feelings that is felt by taking fabrics or garments in hands is called handle.
97. Hanger: One or more than one loop is made in garments for hanging the garments, that loop is called hanger. A frame made of wood, metal or plastic by which garments are kept hanging. This type of frame is also called a hanger.
98. Hem: The shape of the end of garment which is made by folding the end of fabric and placing it inside, and sewing along the end, is called the hem.
99. Hang: The way in which the garment hangs from the human body is called the hang.
100. Hanger appeal: The term ‘hanger appeal’ is used to express the beauty of garments when they are kept in hangers for sale.
101. Inter facing: An extra layer of fabric is used between the garments part and facing for increasing the shape, durability, and strength of garments, which is called the inter facing.
102. Interlining: In certain part of a garment, a special fabric layer is used between two layers of fabric for retention of the shape of that part, for increasing the strength, or for increasing the thickness and that special type of fabric layer is called interlining. It is popular apparel terms in apparel industry.
103. Inlay: For facilitating the increasing of any part of a garment in time of need, some extra fabric beyond the seam is kept in pattern which is called inlay. It helps in strengthening the seams and its durability too. It is specially mentionable here that the inlay measurement is taken beyond the seam allowance.
104. Inset: The piece of fabric that is used for the convenience of fitting or for increasing the beauty is called the inset.
105. Jetting: It is a long narrow piece of fabric cut from the length direction of fabric, which is used inside the pocket by sewing parallel to the pocket opening and then overturning along the end.
106. Jigger: The button which is used in double breasted coat or inside the garments is called jigger. Generally this type of button is sewn with long shank.
107. Lapel: By folding the upper end of forepart of coat or jacket, the portion which is made on the forepart from the break to the neck is called the lapel.
108. Lay: As part of preparation of fabric cutting, a number of layers of fabrics are placed according to the length and width of marker. Such type of fabric layers is called the lay.
109. Laying-up: The process of making of fabric lay is called the laying-up or spreading.
110. Lay pin: Along the places in fabric lay which will be considered as wastage during fabric cutting, 10-15 cm long and flat headed narrow steel pins are inserted so that the layers within the fabrics cannot move easily, during cutting of fabrics. Such pin is called lay pin.
111. Leaf edge: The end of collar of a garment which remains hanging downward is called the leaf edge.
112. Ligne: It is a unit of measuring comparatively smaller width (1 ligne = 0.635 mm). The ligne is used for measuring the width of buttons, ribbons etc.
113. Linking: The process of joining the parts of the garments made with knitted fabrics, with special sewing machine (linking machine), is called linking.
114. Lining: The fabric which covers the garments fabric from the inner side of the garments is called lining.
115. Lay planning: According to the plan with which, all the parts of pattern for a required size or sizes of a garment are spread, in the marker, mainly for controlling the wastage of fabrics, is called the lay planning. It is very important apparel terms frequently used in garment manufacturing.
116. Lashing: The process of joining of the ends of various parts of a coat, or of interlining with the seam of facing or of the fabrics of garments with blind stitches is called the lashing.
117. Modeling: The process of making the various parts of a garment as per the shape of the various parts of human body or of the body of a dummy is called the modeling.
118. Mal: Bleached fabric made from very finer quality of cotton is called the mal or muslin.
119. Make through: It is the ancient process of making garments where a single operator completes the joining of all the parts of a garment.
120. Making-up: The process of converting fabric to garments is called making-up.
121. Marking-in: Marking around the patterns of a garment on the fabric, or on paper or on the marker with chalk, pencil or any other thing is called marking-in.
122. Measure cutting: Cutting of fabric as per the body measurements of a particular person is called the measure cutting.
123. Marker: The total patterns of a garment are drawn in a planned way mainly on paper and which is used for cutting of fabric by spreading it on the fabric layers is called marker.
124. Model: The garment which is made initially as a sample as per the design of the garment is called the model.
125. Moulding: The process of giving desired shape of a garment parts with the help of a die by applying heat and pressure is called moulding.
126. Magyar sleeve: The sleeve which is cut with the bodice as a single piece is called the Magyar sleeve.
127. Nap: One kind of fabric the upside of which contains fibers is called nap.
128. Neatening: The system so that yarns cannot come out from the cutting end of a fabric is called the neatening.
129. Needle gauge: In the sewing machine where multiple needles are used, the existing distance between the adjacent needles of that machine is called the needle gauge.
130. Notch: Small slots are made along the end lines of some of the cutting parts of fabric prepared for garments making which act as a guide for joining the parts. Such slotted portions are called the notch.
131. N.S.A: N.S.A is an abbreviation whose meaning is there in no seam allowance (no seam allowance).
132. Off pressing: After completion of sewing of garments, the final pressing made on it is called the off pressing.
133. Off-grain: If the weft yarns do not stay in 90 degree angle with the selvedge of the fabric, then it is called off-grain.
134. Pad: As per the shape of the particular place of the body or as per the fold, the additional material is used under the fabrics along that place. It is done for beautifying that place or portion of the garment and is called the pad.
135. Pad stitching: Generally multiple adjacent lines of sewing are made in lapels or in collars for obtaining the desired shape and the process is called the pad stitching.
136. Pinking: Along the cutting line of fabrics, small serratings are made so that yarns cannot come out. This process is called the pinking. This is also done for increasing the beauty of the cutting ends of fabrics.
137. Pitch: During the time of sleeve joining in garments, the process of sleeve joining, by maintaining balance as per the balance sign along the scyeline is called the pitch.
138. Plugging: The process of attaching of buttons from inside the garments by inserting a plug through the eye of a shank is called the plugging.
139. Pressing: The process of removing the unwanted crease from the garments or making crease on the desired places by applying heat and pressure is called the pressing.
140. Pleating: The process of making crease on the parts of fabrics by folding it (fabric) is called the pleating.
141. Placket: For facilitating the closing and opening of garments facings, like: zipper, hook, snap etc. are attached on nthe parts of the garments which are not seen from the top or from the front side of the garment. Those parts are called placket.
142. Pile: During the weaving of fabrics, the fiber layers that are created on the fabrics are called the piles. For example, velvet, towel etc.
143. Pattern: The replica, shape or template of a part of a garment is called the pattern. It is very common apparel terms.
144. Post bed: The arrangement of facilitating the sewing with needles with the help of a post placed a little above the surface of the sewing table is called the post bed.
145. Progressive bundle system: This is a process of garments production. In this process, the garments or its parts are supplied to the other machines in bundles for sewing or for the next jobs to be done.
146. Progressive line system: This is a process of garments production where a garment or its part is sewn and sent one piece and then another to the next operator for the next job to be done.
147. Patch pocket: One kind of pocket which is made by attaching a piece of fabric by sewing on the surface of a garment is called the patch pocket.
148. Cross-pocket: The pockets which stay horizontally or diagonally with the base are called the cross-pockets. For example, the side pockets of trousers are cross-pockets.
149. Piping: A piece of biased cut fabric which is used for joining in the end of any part of a garment by folding and including or without including filling is called the piping. The arrangement of using cord or lace through the folded narrow part at the end of any part of a garment is also called the piping.
150. Quilting: The sewing of foam or any padding material between two layers of fabrics in parallel or in diagonal or in any specific design is called the quilting.
151. Ruffling: This is a process of gathering of fabrics.
152. Seaming: The process of joining together the parts of a garment is called the seaming.
153. Seam: The line along which one piece or multiple pieces of fabrics are joined by sewing is called the seam.
154. Sewing out: The process of placing inside the cutting ends of fabric and then sewing is called the sewing out.
155. Sewing round: The process of sewing along the end lines of different parts of a garment and the joining of the lining or facing with the garment is called the sewing round.
156. Seam busting: The process of placing the ends of fabrics in two directions by pressing in the middle of the seam is called the seam busting.
157. Shirring: The process of creating gathering of sewing fabric by using elastic thread as looper thread in multiple needled chain stitch machine is called the shirring.
158. Spiking: It is a process of spreading of fabrics where spikes are placed in 8-10 inches gap at the one end of a table. The falling end of the fabric is stringed by hand pressing to the spikes and then it (the fabric) is spreaded.
159. Stitch: Each of the unit of sewing made with sewing thread is called the stitch.
160. Straight line system: This is one kind of system in production. In this system, each of the garment, after completion of one job goes systematically to the other operator for the next job.
161. Tacking: The sewing which is made by hand or by machine for increasing the strength of a particular part of a garment is called the tacking.
Before permanently joining any part of a garment, sometimes it is joined temporarily. This is also called tacking or busting.
162. Thread marking: The temporary sewing for seeing the fitting of garments is called the thread marking.
For marking the pocket and dart, thread is inserted through the specified places of each of the layer of laying fabrics with the help of thread marking machine and this is called the thread marking.
163. Top stitching: Clearly visible sewing is made along the balanced distance from the seam which is used for increasing the beauty and for strengthening. This is called the top stitching.
164. Try-on: Whether the size, shape and fitting of a garment are okay or not is checked by some persons through wearing of the garment during or after making of the garment. This is called the try-on.
165. Sample: Before going for bulk production, the garment which is made as a design/model is called the sample.
166. Scallop: The process of making systematic half circles at the end of a garment or along the hem line is called the scallop.
167. Scye: The armhole measurement of a garment is called the scye.
168. Selvedge: The two ends of fabric towards the fall is called the selvedge.
169. Shaping: The cutting of fabric in correct shape and in correct size for any parts of a garment, specially for collar or for lapel using the template or shaper is called the shaping.
170. Sizing code: The sign or number by which the size of a garment is meant is called the sizing code. For example, 10, 12, 14, 16 etc.
171. Slash & spread: This is a process in which a specified pattern is cut and extended and fullness is made increased along that place.
172. Sleeve head/crown: The place of an arm or a sleeve which is joined with the armhole of a shirt or of a garment is called the sleeve head or crown.
173. Sleeve pitch: The angle at which the arm or the sleeve is joined with the armhole of a garment is called the sleeve pitch.
174. Stand: The part of a collar which is joined with the neckline is called the stand.
175. Stay: In some parts of a garment, specially inside the collar, the hard and thin material which is used for increasing the strength or the durability of the shape is called the stay.
176. Stride room: The process of increasing the width along the hem line in a skirt for easy movement during the time of wearing is called the stride room.
177. Suppression: For closer fitting of garments, the process of decreasing excess fabric through dart or gathering is called the suppression.
178. Swatch: A small piece of fabric which is used as sample for presentation of the color, grade or quality of a fabric is called the swatch.
179. Swing needle: The needle which moves once in the left and the other in the right and sews with a view to making zigzag stitch is called the swing needle.
180. Trimmings: In a garment, except the main fabric all other items that are used in the garment are called trimmings. For example, button, lining, interlining etc. are the trimmings.
181. Ticket number: The number which is used to show how much the sewing thread is thinner or thicker is called the ticket number.
182. Template: This is a plastic, metal or a hard piece of course paper which is used as a pattern or as a guide for cutting of fabric.
183. Under pressing: During the time of production of garments, and for the convenience of garments making, some parts of a garment are pressed lightly which is called under pressing. Generally this is done frequently for seam opening.
184. Vent: The small opening in garments which helps in air movement and for wearing and putting off garments is called the vent.
185. Vest: It is an under garment which is used in the top part of the body.
186. Warp: The yarns which are placed at the length direction of a fabric are called the warps.
186. Weft: The yarns which are placed at the width direction of a fabric are called the weft.
187. Waist coat: This is a sleeveless garment which is generally worn under the coat.
188. Welt: The folded piece of fabric which is used for finishing the end of pocket opening is called the welt.
189. Whole back: If the back part of a garment is cut as a single piece, then it is called the whole back.
190. Wrap: The part or the end of a garment covers the portion of another part or the end. The covered portion is called the warp. For example, button and button hole stand.
191. Workwear: The garments which are used only during the time of working for protecting the body from the adjacent dusts is called the workwear.
192. Wash and wear: The term ‘wash and wear’ is used for those garments whose crease marks are not damaged due to wearing or for washing the garment and after washing the garment, it can be worn without pressing it.
193. Yoke: The part of a garment, specially the part of a shirt, which joins the front and back part along the shoulder line is called the yoke.
194. Zip fastener: The chain along the opening place of a garment with the help of which the opening place of the garment can be opened or closed is called the zip fastener.
195. L.C: It is an abbreviation whose full meaning is letter of credit. In favour of a buyer, the bank (buyer’s bank) offers a letter of guarantee or a document to the seller through his (seller’s) bank for remitting the value of the sold goods. This is called the L.C. It is an important document in import export business. It is very important apparel terms used in apparel merchandising.
196. Back-to-back L/C: The L/C which is opened for importing the raw materials from abroad and with it (raw materials), goods are produced and shipped to the foreign countries is called the back-to-back L/C. It is also very important apparel terms frequienly used in garment business.
The goods imported through back-to-back L/C are not permitted for selling to the open market.
197. Invoice: After exporting the sold goods, the letter or document mentioning the value of goods, which is sent for payment receiving is called the invoice. It is another essential apparel terms used in apparel business.
198. F.O.B: If the value of sold goods is mentioned in the invoice excluding the transportation costs, then it is called the F.O.B price.
199. C&F: If the value of sold goods is mentioned in the invoice including the transportation costs, then it is called the C&F price.
200. CIF: If the value of sold goods is mentioned in the invoice including the transportation costs and insurance costs, then it is called the C.I.F price.
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