Properties of Polyester Fabric by Using Engineered Nanoclay

Investigate the Mechanical and Physical Properties of Polyester Fabric by Using Engineered Nanoclay

Investigate the Mechanical and Physical Properties of Polyester Fabric by Using Engineered Nanoclay

Authors:
Syeda Tazeen Gul
Kanza Ghias
Komal Jamil
Aiman Feroz
Department of Textile Engineering
Ned University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi, Pakistan

 

ABSTRACT

In 21st century, significant progress has been achieved in the area of technical textiles where value added functionality has been successfully developed for high performance end uses. Nanotechnology is playing its vital influence in the advanced materials including modern textile techniques.

The major aim of the study was to incorporate Nano technology in Textile by using Bentonite clay to prepare its Nanosized Clay, which has a good potential in the improvement of physical and mechanical behaviors of Polyester, Cotton and Polyester-Cotton (50/50) Fabrics (GSM ranging from 78-103), respectively.

For the purpose, Bentonite Nanoclay was prepared by modifying the existing mechanism used in the ‘US Patent 2010/0187474’, by reducing the lead time from hundred and eighty days to nine days to get desired nanoclay of 6 nm size, approximately. Increase in Tensile strength was observed by employing Nanoclay coatings of (1, 3, 5 wt%), by percentage effectivity of 38%, 43.9% and 25.5% for cotton, polyester and PC respectively in the warp direction; while an increment was observed by 118%, 35.5% and 110% in the weft direction, respectively.

About 12.6% tear increases in Cotton on a weight loading of 5% Nanoclay. In Polyester and PC, tear strength increases by 10.8% and 3.8% after the application of 1% Nanoclay. As the weight % of Nanoclay increases after 1%, the tear strength decreases.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 OVERVIEW:

In 21st century, significant progress has been achieved in the area of smart textiles to achieve significant improvement in the physical and mechanical properties. Nano technology plays a vital role in this field.

1.2 SCOPE OF PROJECT:

The main purpose of this project is to utilize Bentonite clay to produce Nanoclay using the Physical Method of Separation and Sedimentation and to apply Nanoclay on three different fabrics in order to enhance the physical and mechanical properties of these fabrics after the application. The following properties of the fabrics are tested to evaluate the results.

  • Tensile Strength
  • Tear Strength
  • Air Permeability
  • Abrasion Resistance
  • Absorption

1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT:

The aim of our project is to widen the application of Nanoclay which can be coated and printed onto textile fabrics in order to improve their physical and mechanical properties.

The objectives of this Project are:

  1. To justify the selection of Polyester for this project
  2. To study different types of clay
  3. To select the most compatible clay for the preparation of Nanoclay
  4. To study the chemistry of clay and its compatibility with fabrics.
  5. To manufacture Nanoclay using Physical method of separation and sedimentation.
  6. To study different application methods of Nanoclay and select the most convenient method.
  7. To apply Nanoclay on three different fabrics for comparative study
  8. To perform different tests on all fabrics.
  9. To evaluate results before and after the application of Nanoclay.

1.4 RESEARCH GAP AND MOTIVATION:

Due to the increasing climatic changes, environmental issues are becoming a major concern [1]. The motivation for this research is to overcome these issues by incorporating such technology for textile products that are uses environmental friendly raw materials.

Nanotechnology shows great potential in the textile industry to impart durable mechanical, physical properties to textile materials. The new clothing product developed is based on the incorporation of nanoparticles onto textile fabrics.

1.5 REPORT LAYOUT

1.5.1 Chapter# 1

This contains Overview, Aims and Objectives of the project, Introduction to Nanotechnology, Application of Nanotechnology in Textile, Justification of selecting Polyester.

1.5.2 Chapter# 2

This chapter contains all the information on Clay, Types of Clay, Introduction of Nanoclay, Significance of Nanoclay and the Manufacturing of Nanoclay.

1.5.3 Chapter# 3

This chapter contains the effects of Physical and Mechanical Properties.

1.5.4 Chapter# 4

This chapter contains the Application method of Nanoclay on the fabrics.

1.5.5 Chapter# 5

This chapter contains the experimentation and evaluation of coated fabrics.

1.5.6 Chapter# 6

This chapter contains the results, conclusions drawn and the future work of this project.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 NANOTECHNOLOGY:

According to the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), Nanotechnology is defined as, “the utilization of structures of nanometer size for the construction of materials with novel or significantly improved properties” [2].

2.1.1 Application of Nanotechnology in Textile:

Nanotechnology offers benefits like meeting today’s demand of environmental friendly treatment of fabrics [3].

In addition, Nanotechnology can provide high durability for textile products due to  the fact that Nano-particles have high surface energy and large surface area-to-volume ratio. Due to which, they offer better affinity for their substrate leading to an increase in durability of the properties [4].

Another benefit of incorporating Nano particles into textile products is that the coating of Nano-particles does not affect their breathability or hand feel. In addition, Nano particles improve fabric softness, tensile strength, flame retardation, abrasion resistance and dye ability [4].

2.1.2 Types of Nano Material:

2.1.2.1 Nano composite fibers:

Nanostructured composite fibers are one of the areas where nanotechnology is already having a huge impact when it comes to textile industry.

In 2003, researcher reported the use of Nano technology and concluded remarkable results. The large surface area of Nano composite fibers contributes to an increase the toughness and abrasion resistance as they are evenly distributed in polymer matrices and are able to carry load [5].

2.1.2.2 Carbon Nanofibers and carbon Nano particles:

In 2003, Harholdt’s research reported the investigation of polyester, nylon and polyethylene fibers by incorporating the carbon Nano fibers with the weight of the filler from 5 to 20%. Carbon Nano fibers effectively increase the tensile strength of synthetic fibers due to their high aspect ratio, while carbon black nanoparticles improve the toughness and abrasion resistance of these fibers [5].

2.1.2.3 Carbon Nanotubes:

In 2004, Daoud and Xin’s research reported that the tubular form of carbon has high strength and high electrical conductivity.

In 2007, Scott and Holly’s continuing research activities on Carbon Nanotube fibers came to the conclusion that they can produce conductive and high-strength composite fibers [5].

2.1.2.4 Clay nanoparticles:

In 2007, researcher incorporated clay Nano particle into nylon to impart flame retardant characteristics to the textile without the emission of toxic gas [5]. Nanoclay is a nanoparticle which help to improve fabric softness, tensile strength, flame retardation, abrasion resistance and dye ability.

In 2010, Research reported that Nylon, polypropylene, and polylactide’s fire performance improved when Clay Nano particles were incorporated into them [6].

In 2010, Research reported that coating the surface of cotton with Nanoclay improved the flame resistance. After the evaluation, it was concluded that the flame retardant property of cotton was improved. The physical properties of the fabrics showed slight differences between control and coated cotton fabric, suggesting that the coating improves particular properties [5].

From the literature review, we understand that where all the methods are suitable ways of using Nano technology and improving different properties of fabrics, our research’s scope includes the application of Nanoclay onto the fabric. The mentioned researches became our driving force to choose Clay Nano particles and incorporate them into different textile materials.

2.2 BACKGROUND OF CLAY:

Clay is a special kind of earth material that is made through the decomposition of rocks due to the weathering effects. Clay is basically formed in sediments, soils and by hydrothermal and digenetic changes occurring in the rocks. Water is the most essential medium that acts as a catalyst for clay mineral formation. Therefore, most clay minerals are defined as hydrous alumina silicates [7].

2.3 TYPES OF CLAY WITH THEIR APPLICATION:

Clay is divided into seven categories on the basis of their distinct origins. These seven categories are further divided into thousands of different types of mineral compositions. Each of these types is unique and serves vastly different purposes in different aspects of life [8].

Clays are divided into the following categories:

  • Kaolin clays are popular in anti-diarrheal products. While this type of clay is well known for absorbing toxins and bacteria to a limited extent like all other clay types, Kaolin clay, also, acts as a bulking agent.
  • Illite clays is a green mineral clay which is found in marine settings and has vast commercial applications. Along with that, it is used in cosmetic companies as “mud” formulations. The reason behind it is that it consists of high amount of microbes and other sea life residue which is beneficial for skin.
  • Chlorite clays are popular for their abrasive cleansing properties. The most famous Clorox cleansing and scrubbing powder is prepared using Chlorite clay.
  • Vermiculite clays are mostly used for manufacturing pottery and porcelain finishes on metals. The reason for using Vermiculite clay in these applications is that it is not adsorbent or swelling. Along with that, it has both positive and negative charges which can be utilized in these applications.
  • Mixed group clays are produced when a volcano spews ash from various levels of internal plate formations. It is not unusual to discover mixed group clays at different quarries or mines.
  • Lath-formed clays are different from other clay as this cannot be used on human body due to its harsh properties. It is, also, a mixed type of clay but it is used in bricks and constructions.
  • Smectite clays is the unique type of clay that swells while absorbing and adsorbing positively charged ions. It has several advantages like being used for health and dietary purpose. Along with that, it has several industrial applications. Smectite clays are more complicated than the rest of the clays as they have a higher exchange capacity. They, also, have the ability to absorb several toxins at a higher rate when compared to other types of clay.
  • Montmorillonite Clay (MMT) is commonly known as French Green. It is the kind of clay that has remarkable healing properties. Similar to other types, these types of clays swell as well. Although, it is not that the non- swelling clays are not considered good, but due to the molecular makeup of swelling clays, they have a greater ability of drawing or de toxin potential.
  • Bentonite Clay/Calcium Clay is odorless brown colored clay that has a soft texture with extremely fine consistency. It has several advantages including healing skin, health and not staining. Bentonite clay is known for absorbing and removing toxins, heavy metals, chemicals and impurities [8, 9].

2.4 BENTONITE CLAY:

  • The special properties of bentonite (hydration, swelling, water absorption, viscosity, and thixotropic) make it a valuable material for a wide range of uses and applications.
  • The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy found that the minerals in bentonite clay, and other clays, have an impressive action against antibiotic- resistant bacteria.
  • Bentonite clay is usually combined with magnesium which is used as water filtration tool to remove fluoride.
  • It also helps removing environmental toxins, Due to its magnetic properties, bentonite clay has shown promise in attracting and removing health-damaging environmental toxins.
  • Bentonite is also used as a fining agent.
  • Bentonite can speed the settling of particulate matter.
  • The physical structure of bentonite particle is generally perceivable in sheets and layers. Each layer comprises of two types of structural sheets i.e octahedral and tetrahedral.
  • The tetrahedral sheet comprises of silicon-oxygen tetrahedral linked to neighboring tetrahedral by sharing three corners making a hexagonal network. The fourth corner of each tetrahedron forms a part to adjacent octahedral sheet. The octahedral sheet is usually composed of aluminum or magnesium which bonds with oxygen from the tetrahedral sheet and hydroxyl. Both the sheets form one layer. Several layers are joined by van der waal forces.
  • The basic molecular structure is based on units that consist of silica tetrahedron and aluminum octahedral. The cation Si+4 is fourfold and possesses tetrahedral cooperation with oxygen, while the cation Al+3 occurs in sixfold or octahedral cooperation.
  • A layered structure is influenced by the charge in tetrahedral and octahedral sheets. Charge is developed by Isomorphous. It is basically the replacement of two elements with each other in mineral crystal without modifying its chemical structure.
  • The sheets present in bentonite comprises of 2:1 structure. The sheets in the crystal plane have a negative charge and hydroxyl groups linked to aluminum. The electrostatic force is the force of attraction between the sheets [10].

Structure of Bentonite for nanoclay
Figure 1: Structure of Bentonite [10]
2.5 BACKGROUND OF NANOCLAY:

The selection of materials is based on the factors that are required for the success for this project. These important characteristics are permeability, solubility, stability, compatibility and ability to not harm the environment (presence of toxic materials).

For treated fabrics nano particles can provide high durability because of their large surface area and adequate surface energy which is beneficial for the affinity towards fabrics.

The particle size also plays a vital role in assuming the bonding of clay towards the fibers. It is rightly said that the smaller the particle, the better its penetration deep in the structure of fabric. Since it is a natural earth material therefore it does not harm  the environment [11].

2.5.1 Applications of Nanoclay:

There are some important applications of Nanoclay finishes [12]. Some of them are following:

  • Nanoclay is used to enable fibers to act as carries for different active agents including drugs and
  • Nanoclay is also used in research work for the production of antimicrobial fabrics.
  • Nanoclay is also used in skin care products by incorporating them with Nylon.
  • Bentonite clay is used in different fields including chemical, metallurgy, and petroleum due to its high absorption capacity [12].

2.5.2 Significance of Nanoclay:

The reason for using clay nanomaterials are their high aspect ratio which enables  large surface areas to interact with the polymers. Clay is a unique type of earth which is made by the decomposition of rocks through the action of weathering. It is found everywhere and it has numerous applications.

Biodegradable means that it can be broken down into simpler substances that can be reused by other organisms in the environment. Clay is in the form of the earthy mineral. It does not break down into further pieces. It just returns to the soil and as it is not organic so it does not need to biodegrade. Whereas on the other hand if we use chemicals to give us the same results that we are trying to achieve from Nanoclay so it may biodegrade and harm the environment. So to accomplish fruitful results without any harm to the surrounding we are using Nanoclay [11, 12].

2.6 BACKGROUND OF FABRICS:

Table 2.1 Literature Review of Fabrics

FABRIC RESEARCH RESULT
POLYESTER In 2006, P. Jawahar researched about the tribological behavior of polyester Nano Abrasion decreases with an increase in Nano clay. The reason is that Nanoclay dispersed in polymer
composites. matrix hinders the loss of fibers during wear test.
In 2012, Ravindra D Kale reported a research on Polyester Nano composite fibers. It was concluded that nanoclay imparted flame retardant properties to the Polyester Nanocomposites.
In 2015, MS Chaudhery reported Effect of Nanoclay on the Mechanical properties of Polyester Nano composite. Mechanical properties including Tensile and Bending were proven to improven when 3wt% of Nano composite is incorporated into polyester fibers.
COTTON In 2010, Research reported that coating the surface of cotton with Nanoclay improved the flame resistance. The flame retardant property of cotton was improved. The physical properties of the fabrics showed slight differences suggesting that the coating slightly improves particular mechanical and physical properties.

From the literature review, we understand that the physical and mechanical properties are improving after either the application of  Nanoclay onto the fabric or development of Nano composite fibers.

The mentioned research papers became our driving force to select polyester [5, 13, 14]. However, according to market’s economic factor, cotton and pc are also popular. Therefore, for comparative study, we are going to apply Nanoclay on cotton and polyester-cotton blend as well.

2.7 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:

We are mainly focusing on three physical properties and that are:

  1. Fabric Appearance
  2. Fabric Handle
  3. Fabric Count
  4. Abrasion Resistance
  5. Air Permeability
  6. Absorbency

The ability of a fabric to resist surface wear caused by flat rubbing contact with another material is referred as abrasion resistance in textile. Abrasion resistant materials overcome the problems such as fabric damage, loss of strength and irregular surface appearance.

For maintaining thermal contact in the fabrics air permeability plays an important role, Air permeability affects the comfort of a garment as it measures the amount of air being passed through the fabric.

2.8 EFFECTS OF NANOCLAY ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYESTER FABRIC:

2.8.1 Appearance:

Appearance plays a major role in this project because if the application of Nanoclay alters the appearance of the fabric then .In 2010, Grunlan and J.C’s research reported no difference in appearance between coated and uncoated fabric. The solution prepared for the application of Nanoclay is transparent therefore, there is no change in the appearance [6].

2.8.2 Hand feel:

In 2010, Grunlan and J.C’s research reported the assessment of fabric (by touch of hand), and observed that there was no difference between the coated and uncoated samples tested. The size of Nanoclay is one billionth of a meter. Apart from that, Nanoclay has a greater surface area, due to which an even layer is formed on the surface of the fabric [6].

2.8.3 Fabric count:

In 2010, research was conducted in which Nanoclay was applied to improve various properties. The test was carried out on 5 randomly selected portions of fabrics from each coated fabric and fabric count was observed. The results demonstrate that the coating of Nanoclay does not affect the fabric count [6].

2.8.4 Abrasion Resistance:

In 2005, Zhang et al research evaluated the wear properties of Nano composite coatings. The abrasion resistance was improved due to the improved strength and reduced the detachment of the fibers which resulted in a lower abrasion [15].

In 2017, LK El-Gabry’s Research reported abrasion resistance of untreated and treated viscose fabrics with nanomaterial. It was found that after an increase in abrasion cycles about 50% for the treated fabric than untreated one, it was concluded that the abrasion is better when treatment viscose fabrics Nanoclay [16].

2.8.5 Air permeability:

Air permeability is an important component inside the performance of textile materials. Air permeability is basically an illustration of the breathability of climate- resistant fabric.

In 2012, Joshi and Bhattacharya’s research showed an experiment in which Nanoclay is applied on polyester and Air permeability of the fabrics is examined. It was observed that the breathability of the fabric is not affected after Nano clay’s deposition [17].

2.9 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES:

We are mainly focusing on three mechanical properties and that are:

  1. Tensile Strength
  2. Tear Strength

2.9.1 Tensile Strength:

Tensile strength is defined as a stress which measured as force per unit area. Maximum load that a material can support without fracture when being stretched, divided by the original cross-sectional area of material.

Tensile strength of a fabric is extremely important in garment manufacturing and the services of product. High tensile strength is the primary requirement of any product which will be highly influenced by the tensile properties of fabric used in its production. It also affects the shelf life of the final product and ultimately the consumer demand too.

2.10 EFFECTS OF NANO-CLAY ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYESTER FABRIC:

2.10.1 Tensile Strength:

According to various research work paper, it is observed that the tensile strength of polyester were improved by the addition of 5% clay. With further increase in the wt% of clay tensile properties were decreased.

Many researchers investigated Polyester/Nano clay in International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology. One of the research paper showed an experiment work in which Nanoclay is used on polyester with different concentrations of clay (1, 3, 5, and 7 wt. %) and a particular resin.

According to the experiment performed in 2015,it has been observed that application of Nanoclay induces noticeable improvement in following mentioned mechanical properties of polyester [18].

Tensile strength results for different % of Nanoclay:

Tensile strength of Polyester is evaluated on different percentages of Nano clay.

Graphs of tensile strength upto 7 wt. % of nanoclay
Figure 2: Graphs of tensile strength upto 7 wt. % of nanoclay
Graphs of tensile strength upto 7 wt.% of nanoclay
Figure 3: Graphs of tensile strength upto 7 wt.% of nanoclay
Graphs of tensile strength upto 7 wt. % of nanoclay
Figure 4: Graphs of tensile strength upto 7 wt. % of nanoclay

Researchers are working on fabrication of new modified textile materials worldwide to enhance the applicability of Nano-clay. In view of this, the objective of our project work is to analyze the effect of Nanoclay content on the physical and mechanical behavior of Polyester, Cotton and Polyester-Cotton Blend Fabric in which Nano clay is incorporated as a coating. Four different concentration of Nano-clays are fabricated by hand layup technique onto polyester using zero (0) wt.% nanoclay,1 wt.% Nano clay, 3 wt. % Nano clay, and 5 wt.% Nano clay with 40% wt. fiber, and  polyester. The results of the study show that the incorporation of Nano clay has a significant effect on the physical and mechanical behavior of polyester fabric. The optimum coating of Nano-clay in the Polyester fabric was attained at 3%, where the improvement in tensile strength was seen.

CHAPTER 3

EXPERIMENTATION

3.1 PREPARATION OF NANO CLAY:

According to the procedure available in US patent 2010/0187474 Al, Nano Clay is prepared after soaking clay in water for a total of hundred and eight days [19]. However, we have modified the existing mechanism in the US patent by decreasing the lead time up to eight to nine days and developed Nano clay with a size of 8nm.

3.1.1 Preparation Process:

The following procedure is used to prepare Nano Clay:

3.1.1.1 Step#1:

100g of layered clay is mixed with 1000ml of water. The mixture is kept still for 24 hours. The mixture was then stirred for 5 minutes mechanically until it became liquid with some solid precipitation. The mixture is then kept still for thirty six hours as the layered clay and water to undergo a hydration reaction.

3.1.1.2 Step#2:

Precipitate is found at the bottom of the first container. Decanting of the liquid occurs so that it is free from the precipitate found in the first container. The water obtained is evaporated and the residue obtained is mixed with the same quantity of water in the second container. The same reaction occurs as the clay undergoes a hydration reaction. The mixture is kept for 168 hours to allow the precipitate to settle down.

3.1.1.3 Step #3:

Precipitate formed in the first container is again kept in the same quantity of water for 48 hours in the third container. The water obtained from this container is evaporated and the residue obtained is mixed with the same quantity of water in the fourth container. The same reaction occurs as the clay undergoes a hydration reaction. The mixture is kept for 168 hours to allow the precipitate to settle down.

3.1.1.4 Step#4:

The precipitate formed in the second container is separated from the water by decanting the liquid. The water obtained is again evaporated and the residue obtained is Nano clay.

After the mixture is kept for 168 hours in the fourth container, the precipitate formed is separated by decanting the liquid. The water obtained is again evaporated and the residue obtained is Nano clay.

At the end of Step#4, 2 batches of Nano clay are obtained. The process is repeated to obtain more batches of Nano clay.

3.1.1.5 Step#5:

Obtained Nano clays are crushed manually to reduce the particle size and obtain powered Nano clays [19].

3.2 BEHAVIOUR OF CLAY IN WATER:

The principles of specific weight and gravitational force are applied in this invention, when we soak the clay in water all that impurities and unqualified Nano clays in bentonite ores will precipitate and are separated from the liquid. If the liquid is kept still for a long period of time that all the impurities and unqualified Nano clay disperse exfoliated in water. The bentonite ores will settle down to the bottom. In the end, the liquid will be consisted of qualified Nano clays and water only [19].

3.3 CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO CLAY:

For the characterization of Nano Clay, we have used the following method. This method confirms both the composition of Nano Clay along with the particle size.

3.3.1 XRD (X-Ray Diffraction):

X-ray diffraction is a laboratory method for analyzing the structural characterization of material. .A diffractometer is a measuring instrument for analyzing the structure of a material from the scattering pattern produced when a beam of radiation or particles (such as X-rays or neutrons) interacts with it [20].

3.3.2 Purpose of XRD:

  • Measure the average spacing between layers or rows of atoms
  • Determine the orientation of a single crystal or grain
  • Find the crystal structure of an unknown material
  • Measure the size, shape and internal stress of small crystalline regions

3.3.3 Mechanism of XRD:

XRD is performed by directing an x-ray beam at a sample and measuring the scattered intensity as a function of the outgoing direction. When the beam is separated, the scatter, also called a diffraction pattern, indicates the sample’s crystal structure. It is a non-destructive technique for analyzing the structure of materials, primarily at the atomic or molecular level. It works best for materials that are crystalline or partially crystalline (i.e., that have periodic structural order) but is also used to study non- crystalline materials.

3.3.4 XRD-Tool for Nanotechnology:

The wavelength of X-rays is on the atomic scale, so X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a primary tool to investigate the structure of nano-materials. Crystalline materials give rise to the most obvious applications, but there is also important information to be obtained from semi-crystalline and even amorphous materials.

It provides information about the internal structure on length scales from 0.1 to 100 nm.

3.3.5 Instrument and Measuring Principle:

XRD analysis is based on constructive interference of monochromatic X-rays and a crystalline sample. The X-rays are generated by a cathode ray tube, filtered to produce monochromatic radiation, collimated to concentrate, and directed toward the sample. Bragg’s Law (nλ=2d sin θ) is applied when performing XRD. This law relates the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation to the diffraction angle and the lattice spacing in a crystalline sample.

3.3.6 X-Ray Powder Diffraction vs. Single – Crystal Diffraction:

As compare to single-crystal diffraction. It is much easier to produce a powder sample than a single crystal. Because each having the same scattering angle 2θ that an individual spot would have had in a single crystal pattern [20].

3.3.7 Results of Engineered Nanoclay:

XRD is an X-ray based technique where the material interacts with X-ray beam of specific wavelength. The beam gets scattered depending on the crystal structure of the sample and generates a plot having intensity as a function of 2theta. So it can give phases as well as quantities in terms of relative intensity.

XRD gives the information of crystalline components present in the compound. Crystalline structure of nano particles can be obtained by the help of XRD and later with the help of brag’s law the size of nano particles can also be calculated. It helps to give information about the elements present in the compound with their respective amount in it so that you can identify the sample tested through it. Peaks obtained in the XRD graphs shows the minimum and maximum amount of elements present in  the compound. the XRD library have cards, each card consist different standards of elements when the sample is tested by XRD it matches the elements of your sample with its library and mention the card number, having the same elements present in your compound as well.

The result analysis can be done through the graphs obtained by it. Highest peak shows the highest amount of element in the compound and same goes for the shorter peaks.

XRD result of Nanoclay
Figure 5: XRD result of Nano Clay

3.3.8 Calculation of Particle Size:

Table 3.1 Calculation Of Particle Size

Calculation Of Particle Size

Formula:

formula

Where, K= 0.9, Lamda = 1.54060

3.4 APPLICATION METHOD OF NANO CLAY:

There are two major method of application of Nano clay on textile substrate that includes:

  1. Exhaust Method
  2. Coating

We have selected the method of coating because of the reasons mentioned below:

3.4.1 Exhaust Method:

When polyester fabric is treated with Nano clay with Exhaust Method, the wash and light fastness of samples upon dyeing are exactly same as that of the virgin PET fiber as the amorphous content has no significant effect. However, the LOI values of treated PET fibers are slightly lower than those for corresponding untreated fibers. This could be due to the leaching of the Nano clay present on the surface of the fiber during exhaust method which is carried out at high temperature.

The graph below clearly shows the comparison between the thermal stability of treated and untreated polyester fiber[21].

3.4.2 Coating:

The coating of Nano clay proves itself to be the most suitable method of application because, it is the most common technique used to apply Nano-particles onto textile. The coating compositions that can modify the surface of textiles are usually composed of Nano-particles and dispersing agents.

Coating can be done by several methods including spraying, transfer printing and padding. Of these methods padding is the mostly used option as Nano-particles are attached to the fabrics with the use of padder adjusted to suitable pressure and speed, followed by curing and drying process for their permanent fixation. The high specific surface area of Nano clay, due to its nanometer size and high aspect ratio, provides an increased number of polymer–particle and particle–particle interactions relative to conventional fillers. Maximum property improvements are believed to be obtained when the Nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed into their individual sheets within the polymer matrix[17, 21, 22].

3.4.3 Ingredients for Padding:

It is an important for padding along with clay to also have a binding/dispersing agent. It is observed that when clay is added without binding/dispersing agent, then the clay is not well-distributed on the fabrics. The issue with clay without dispersing agent is that clay agglomerate at the top of the water surface and hence the deposition on fabrics is uneven. It is important to obtain even dispersion of clay otherwise clay particles will sink at the bottom of the bath and padding will not be proper.

After the mechanical agitation, clay is dispersed in water along with a dispersing agent.

There are several dispersing agents that can be used including sodium carbonate, , potassium carbonate, sodium sulfate, magnesium sulfate, lithium sulfate, potassium sulfate, lithium carbonate, sodium sesquicarbonate and sodium citrate.  Most  preferred are sodium sulfate and sodium carbonate. It is theorized that salts such as sodium carbonate which are basic in character are particularly advantageous for the present compositions. These water soluble inorganic salts are believed to act as binding agents that impart a temporary binding force. However, importantly, since the salts are water soluble, the binding force dissipates during washing. Thereby, they can’t facilitate even distribution of the clay upon the fabrics after washing[23].

There have been several efforts to use starch as a binding agent for Nanoclay. Starch would appear to be an excellent candidate as a binding agent. Substantial supplies of native starch of a consistent quality are widely available, especially as compared to other binders such as those mentioned hereinabove. Starch exhibits general insensitivity to water chemistry and strong binding characteristics which are desirable in good binders[24].

3.4.4 Recipe for Padding:

Different research papers and US patents have used Nano Clay in %wt of the substrate. However, the scope of this project includes determining the minimum amount of clay that can be used to improve the mechanical and physical properties of Nano Clay and the extent to which the minimum quantity of Nano Clay be can used to improve the properties. Therefore, it was decided to take this research forward by dividing the recipes mainly into two different categories of Nano Clay based on the units (gram and milligram). Both the categories are further divided into sub categories where the Nano clay’s quantity is varied. The amount of water and quantity of starch is kept constant to evaluate the effects of Nano Clay on three different fabrics (Cotton, PC and Polyester).

Table 3.2 Recipe of Nano Clay

Fabric Nano clay (mg) Starch (g) Water (ml)
Cotton 1 0.25 100
3
5
Polyester 1 0.25 100
3
5
PC 1 0.25 100
3
5

3.4.5 Procedure:

Following steps are followed for padding samples with Nano Clay.

3.4.5.1 Step#1:

Three A4 sized samples are prepared from three fabrics (polyester, cotton and PC).

3.4.5.2 Step# 2:

Solution bath is prepared according to the recipe mentioned above.

3.4.5.3 Step# 3:

Samples are padded in Padding System with a pressure of 1 and a speed of 1.

3.4.5.4 Step# 4:

Samples are dried in the oven at 100C for 10 minutes to allow the cross linking of Starch and Nano clay.

3.5 BONDING BETWEEN STARCH AND NANO CLAY:

The affinity between hydrophilic starch and bentonite Nanoclay’s surfaces is very high. In the presence of water, attraction between them increases as the desorption of hydration bentonite and the amorphous state of adsorbed amylose occurs[25].

Bonding between Nanoclay and Starch
Figure 6: Bonding between Nano Clay and Starch

3.5.1 Bonding Between Nano Clay, Starch and Fabric:

Cotton is a polysaccharide with several free hydroxyl groups on the surface. Starch binder has two free carboxylic acid groups which can bind with both the cotton and Nano Clay. Ester bonds are formed between the hydroxyl groups of cellulose and Starch. The second carboxylic group on this binder is able to anchor Nano Clay by electrostatic interaction. It is already established that nano clay presents a strong electrostatic interaction with carboxylic groups[26].

It is hypothesized that the starch molecules are required in high quantity so that they can allow full surface coverage of polyester fabric. This results in an increase in the adsorption of Nano clay onto the fabric. It is assumed that there is a hydrogen bonding occurring between acid groups available in the composition of starch and ester groups on polyester[27]. The second carboxylic group on this binder is able to anchor Nano Clay by electrostatic interaction. It is already established that nano clay presents a strong electrostatic interaction with carboxylic groups[26].

In case of Polyester-Cotton (50/50 blend), it is assumed that the acid groups of starch bonds with the ester groups of polyester fibers whereas the hydroxyl groups of starch bonds with the hydroxyl groups of cotton fibers; both of these bonds crosslink Nano Clay to the fabric.

3.6 TENSILE STRENGTH TESTING:

3.6.1 Standard: EN ISO 13934-1

3.6.2 Sample size:

Width shall be 50 mm ± 0.5 mm (excluding any fringe) and length must be 200 mm.

3.6.3 Method:

According to the standard EN ISO 13934-1, specimens are tested in both weft and warp directions under standard atmosphere conditions. Set of specimen in each direction must contain at least three test specimens, except that if a higher degree of precision is required, more test specimens shall be tested. Due to the surface properties of the fabric it prefers pneumatic grips to hold the fabric a part.

This standard determines elongation at maximum force of the fabric and applies mainly to the woven fabrics, it can be used for other fabrics but is not applicable specifically for elastic goods, geotextiles, non-woven and other textile fabrics made of carbon fibers or polyolefin fiber yarns.

The specimen must be free from creases, folds and selvedges. Feed the required data into the system including number of samples to be tested, direction of specimen whether it is being cut in warp or in weft direction and standard to be followed.

Clamp a test specimen centrally so that its longitudinal center- line passes through the center point of the front edges of the jaw. Make sure that sample must not be in the slack or else in this case pretension will be applied during mounting of test specimen and shall not produce elongation more than 2%.  Start the system which pretension  the fabric first to remove the slack (if any) and shall not produce elongation more than 2%. Once the sample get pretensioned the system starts to apply tensile force and the maximum force and elongation will be recorded at which the specimen will tear apart [28].

3.6.4 Observations:

Table 3.3 Observations for Tensile strength

Fabric Starch Nanoclay Tensile Strength (Warp) Tensile Strength (Weft)
(g) (mg) N N
Cotton 0.25 Parent 149.7 61.2
148.3 50.3
154.8 76.3
Mean: 150.9 Mean: 62.6
149.2 52.5
152.9 75.8
148.7 63.4
Mean: 150.2 Mean: 63.9
1 199.7 85.9
197.4 66.0
169.5 71.4
Mean: 188.8 Mean: 74.43
3 175.0 102.7
201.3 110.6
217.1 101.4
Mean: 197.8 Mean: 104.9
5 239.5 133.9
254.6 149.4
236.2 126.5
Mean: 243.4 Mean: 136.6
Polyester 0.25 Parent 160.1 39.9
158.5 44.0
164.8 42.7
Mean: 161.3 Mean: 42.2
163.2 38.4
159.8 41.5
162.12 38.2
Mean: 161.4 Mean: 39.3
1 174.2 45.3
172.5 48.9
171.2 46.7
Mean: 172.3 Mean: 46.96
3 187.8 49.9
185.0 51.3
188.2 51.0
Mean: 187 Mean: 50.73
5 256.5 56.9
224.8 56.7
215.4 58.0
Mean: 232.2 Mean: 57.2
Polyester-Cotton (50/50) 0.25 Parent 276.2 77.7
224.8 95.2
279.5 104.1
Mean: 260.1 Mean: 92.3
0 228.3 74.7
275.2

235.6

101.3

96.3

Mean: 246.3 Mean: 90.7
1 286.5 114.8
270.8 122..5
265.4 123.5
Mean: 273.9 Mean: 120.3
3 293.6 169.1
296.1 170.6
300.5 155.4
Mean: 296.7 Mean: 165
 

5

330.1 195.5
332.4 191.2
317.0 196.6
Mean: 326.5 Mean:194.4

3.7 TEAR TEST:

3.7.1 Standard: ISO-13937-1

3.7.2 Sample size: 63 mm × 76 mm

3.7.3 Method:

Cut the samples as per the sample size both in warp and weft direction using  specimen template. Testing for tear strength, both in warp and weft direction will be done separately. Fabric must be placed between the jaws of tear tester and then pre- cut the sample by the cutter.

Preliminary testing is done to set the required loads, the machine will display the load required to tear the sample apart. Adjust the system as per the required load before testing.

Repeat the same procedure for desired number of samples in each direction of specimen i.e. warp and weft direction. Calculate mean and standard deviation for more precise results [28].

Tear Test
Figure 7: Tear Test

3.7.4 Observations:

Table 3.4 Observations for Tear Strength

Fabric Starch (g) Nanoclay

(mg)

Tear Test

Warp (N)

Tear Test

Weft (N)

Cotton 0.25 Parent 8.85 7.21
8.55 7.01
8.25 7.11
Mean: 8.55 Mean: 7.11
0 8.22 7.01
8.12 7.16
8.32 6.89
Mean: 8.22 Mean: 7.02
1 8.44 5.97
8.44 6.60
8.34 6.73
Mean: 8.40 Mean: 6.43
3 8.95 7.25
8.45 7.73
8.35 7.48
Mean: 8.58 Mean: 7.48
5 8.34 8.04
9.23 7.39
11.33 8.74
Mean: 9.63 Mean: 8.05
Polyester 0.25 Parent 13.66 6.99
14.67 6.48
12.82 6.55
Mean: 13.05 Mean: 6.67
0 12.18 5.72
12.23 5.86
11.39 6.54
Mean: 11.9 Mean: 6.04
1 13.99 7.53
16.31 8.04
13.13 9.35
Mean: 14.47 Mean: 8.30
3 12.95 7.31
14.88 7.51
13.57 7.32
Mean: 13.8 Mean: 7.38
5 14.02 7.21
12.40 7.14
14.62 7.21
Mean: 13.68 Mean: 7.18
Polyester- Cotton (50/50) 0.25 Parent 14.97 11.94
13.53 12.13
14.02 10.33
Mean: 14.17 Mean: 11.46
12.13 10.21
12.41 10.43
12.16 11.21
Mean: 12.2 Mean: 10.6
1 14.97 12.37
15.39 11.70
13.77 11.89
Mean: 14.71 Mean: 11.98
3 12.79 15.47
15.39 14.71
15.64 15.14
Mean: 14.6 Mean: 15.1
5 11.38 11.05
11.56 13.77
11.94 12.52
Mean: 11.62 Mean: 12.44

3.8 ABRASION TEST:

3.8.1 Standard: ISO -12947-2

3.8.2 Sample size: 38mm diameter

3.8.3 Sample preparation:

Before cutting the sample make sure that sample must be free from creases, folds, wrinkles and other oil, grease and water stains to get accurate results. By using the circular cutter, cut six samples as per the required sample size and while cutting do not apply excessive pressure or else it will damage the blades of cutter.

3.8.4 Sample placement:

The method of sample preparation is explained below [28].

  • Remove the holder from the a Martindale tester by loosening and lifting up the black knobs fixed on the holder.
  • Remove the silver covers from the black knobs to lift the specimen holder out.
  • The specimen holders are numbered 1-6, place the specimen with their technical face down, cut a polyurethane foam sheet of same sample size and place it between the specimen and metal face.
  • Take care of the specimen edges that they must be secure inside the metallic holder while placing onto the machine.
  • Fix the holders and other parts onto the machine and place the standard weights on the ends of the handles i.e (9kpa for apparel)
  • Switch on the machine
  • Machine must be already programmed to run for 500 movements.
  • Push the green button to start the machine for first batch.
  • When the first batch is done, take the samples out and observe the changes in specimen if there is no noticeable abrasive results being achieved, place the samples for the next batch of 500 movements.
  • Repeat the same procedure until the two or more yarns of your specimen have broken.
Abrasion Resistance Test
Figure 8: Abrasion Resistance Test

3.8.5 Observations:

Table 3.5 Observations of Abrasion Resistance based on thread break

Fabric Starch (G) Nano Clay (Mg) Total Number Of Cycles Cycles Of Thread Break Weight Before Abrasion Weight loss after Abrasion % weight loss
Cotton 0.25 Parent 30,000 30,000 0.148 0.144 2.7%
1 25,000 0.150 0.139 7.9%
3 25,000 0.151 0.139 8.6%
5 35,000 0.154 0.145 6.2%
 

 

Polyester

0.25 Parent 50,000 0.093 0.086 8.1%
1 0.096 0.090 6.6%
3 0.098 0.089 10%
5 0.100 0.089 11%
 

Polyester- Cotton

0.25 Parent 30,000 0.143 0.133 6.9%
1 0.144 0.135 6.6%
3 0.147 0.138 6.1%
5 0.149 0.138 7.9%

3.9 AIR PERMEABILITY

3.9.1 Test standard: EN ISO 9237

3.9.2 Sample size: 3 cm x 38.3 cm

3.9.3 Scope and principle:

This test method covers the measurement of the air permeability which is defined as the rate of air flow passing perpendicularly through a known area under a prescribed air pressure between the two surfaces of textile fabrics over a given time period. It is applicable to most fabrics including woven fabrics, air bag fabrics, blankets, napped fabrics, knitted fabrics, layered fabrics, and pile fabrics, the fabric may be treated, coated or sized.

3.9.4 Apparatus:

  1. Air permeability testing apparatus
  2. Circular test head with an orifice allowing the test to be carried out on area of 5cm², 20cm², 50cm², 100cm².
  3. Clamping system to ensure that the specimen is without distortion
  4. Guard ring device to prevent leakage
  5. Pressure gauge or Monometer to indicate a pressure drop across the specimen test area of 50 Pa, 100 Pa, 200 Pa, 500
  6. Flow meter, indicate the air flow (liters per minute)

3.9.5 Atmosphere for conditioning and testing:

The testing environment must be set up in a standard conditioned, so that the air being drawn through the specimen is at standard conditions that is 20 ± 2 °C and RH 65 ± 2%

3.9.6 Procedure:

Mount the specimen in the circular specimen holder with sufficient tension to eliminate wrinkles. Avoid selvages and areas with creases or folded places. Start the suction fan or any other mean so that air can pass through the fabric, adjust the flow of air gradually till a pressure is achieved.

The air flow rate in litres per minute is then recorded. The pressure differential should be maintained for a further one minute and the air flow rate in litres per minute measured again. Finally, the fabric air permeability R can be calculated according to equation [29].

Air Permeability Test Instrument
Figure 9: Air Permeability Test Instrument

3.9.7 Observations:

According to the research papers, there is no change in the air permeability after the application of nano clay. However, due to the lack of availability of the instrument required, we were not able to perform this test.

3.10 ABSORBENCY TEST (VERTICAL WICKING TEST):

3.11 VERTICAL WICKING TEST

3.11.1 Standard: AATCC-197 2013

3.11.2 Sample size: 165 ± 3 X 25 ± 3 mm

3.11.3 Purpose and scope:

The test method is for determining the ability of vertical aligned fabric specimen is visually observed manually time is recorded at specified intervals[30].

3.11.4 Uses and limitations:

The movement of liquid through the fabric is influenced by fabric construction or chemicals applied on the fabric.

If any other liquid is used in place of water surface tension should be measured.

In this procedure, time and distance is measured when water will move up from the cut edge of a specimen.

3.11.5 Method:

  • Using a pen with soluble ink, mark a line on a specimen at a distance of 5 ± 1mm and across the width of the fabric at a distance of 20 ± 1mm from the end of the fabric side to be tested.
  • 5mm line denotes the water level.
  • Now mark the line at a distance of 150 ± 1mm from the end across the width.
  • Use a clean flask with fresh water for testing following samples.
Wicking Test Instrument
Figure 10: Wicking Test Instrument
  • Start stopwatch or timer as soon as the water reaches the 5 ± 1mm line and soluble ink begins to move upwards. Monitor the rise of the water.
  • Record the time, to the nearest second, that it takes for the soluble ink at the marked 20 ± 1 mm line to move.
  • Continue this process and record the nearest time.
Wicking Test
Figure 11: Wicking Test

3.11.6 Calculation:

To calculate the vertical wicking rates, two different rates that are short period and long a period rate are obtained for each sample.

Vertical wicking rate is calculated by using formula:

W = d/t

Where;

W = wicking rate (mm/s), d = wicking distance (mm), t = wicking time (sec)

The short period rate is calculated from the time it takes to reach 20 ± 1mm line or, from the distance the water has wicked in 5 ± 1 min.

The long period rate is calculated from the time it takes to reach 150 ± 1mm line.

3.11. 7 Observations:

Table 2.6 Wicking test Observations

FABRIC NANO CLAY (mg) WATER ABSORBENCY (seconds)
Cotton Original 46.54
1 42.74
3 34.8
5 25.13
 

 

Polyester

Original 35.34
1 21
3 15
5 14.56
 

Polyester-Cotton (50/50)

Original 15
1 24.04
3 21.32
5 28.10

CHAPTER 4

RESULTS

4.1 CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOCLAY:

Crystalline structure of Nano particles is obtained by the help of XRD and later with the help of brag’s law the size of nano particles is calculated. Peaks obtained in the XRD graphs shows the minimum and maximum amount of elements present in the compound. According to the graphs, the elements present in the clay are similar to those present in the standard bentonite clay hence it is proved that the clay used to prepare nano clay is bentonite.

XRD result of Nanoclay
Figure 12: XRD result of Nano Clay

After the characterization of Nanoclay through XRD and calculation of particle size through brag’s law, it is proven that the prepared clay is Nano with a particle size of 6nm.

4.2 TENSILE STRENGTH:

Results for tensile strength of the fabric are shown in Table 9. It is being observed from many research papers that as the weight percentage of nano clay increases, tensile, tear, and abrasion of fabric also increase because nano fillers have the ability to transfer stress away from the fabric.

According to a research carried out by M.Somaiah Chowdary and M.S.R Niranjan Kumar, maximum improvement in mechanical properties is achieved at 3% nano clay and further addition of nano clay tends to weaken the polyester as it is coated with a thick layer. However, results obtained after the application of nano clay shows a different trend because at 5%, tensile properties have improved by by 38%, 43.9% and 25.5% for cotton, polyester and PC respectively in the warp direction while it has increased by 118%, 35.5% and 110% in the weft direction respectively. This result may be due to the increasing of the interfacial adhesion between the nano clay, starch and the fabric after the treatment due to the dispersion of clay.

However, after 5% it is assumed that fabrics will deteriorate. It is because when the nano clay weight percentage will increase, the mixture will became too viscous, sluggish and more void formations in the samples of high %.This is the reason for which the higher wt% samples will fail. Another reason for failure of higher clay loading is low aspect ratio of clay particles and low contact surface area resulting in weak adhesion between polyester and clay. This subsequently lowers their tensile strength.

4.2.1 Readings:

Table 4.1 Results of Tensile Strength

Fabric Starch Nanoclay Tensile Strength (Warp) Tensile Strength (Weft)
(g) (mg) N N
Cotton 0.25 Parent 149.7 61.2
148.3 50.3
154.8 76.3
Mean: 150.9 Mean: 62.6
149.2 52.5
152.9 75.8
148.7 63.4
Mean: 150.2 Mean: 63.9
1 199.7 85.9
197.4 66.0
169.5 71.4
Mean: 188.8 Mean: 74.43
3 175.0 102.7
201.3 110.6
217.1 101.4
Mean: 197.8 Mean: 104.9
5 239.5 133.9
254.6 149.4
236.2 126.5
Mean: 243.4 Mean: 136.6
Polyester 0.25 Parent 160.1 39.9
158.5 44.0
164.8 42.7
Mean: 161.3 Mean: 42.2
163.2 38.4
159.8 41.5
162.12 38.2
Mean: 161.4 Mean: 39.3
1 174.2 45.3
172.5 48.9
171.2 46.7
Mean: 172.3 Mean: 46.96
3 187.8 49.9
185.0 51.3
188.2 51.0
Mean: 187 Mean: 50.73
5 256.5 56.9
224.8 56.7
215.4 58.0
Mean: 232.2 Mean: 57.2
Polyester-Cotton

(50/50)

0.25 Parent 276.2 77.7
224.8 95.2
279.5 104.1
Mean: 260.1 Mean: 92.3
0 228.3 74.7
275.2

235.6

101.3

96.3

Mean: 246.3 Mean: 90.7
1 286.5 114.8
270.8 122..5
265.4 123.5
Mean: 273.9 Mean: 120.3
3 293.6 169.1
296.1 170.6
300.5 155.4
Mean: 296.7 Mean: 165
 

5

330.1 195.5
332.4 191.2
317.0 196.6
Mean: 326.5 Mean:194.4

4.2.2 Graphs:

Graph of Tensile Strength (Warp)
Figure 13: Graph of Tensile Strength (Warp)
Graph of Tensile Strength (weft)
Figure 14: Graph of Tensile Strength (weft)

4.3 TEAR STRENGTH:

Results for tearing strength of the fabric are shown in Table 10. About 12.6% tear increases in Cotton on a weight loading of 5% Nano clay. However, due to the use of starch, tear strength decreases by 4%. As the weight % of clay increases, tear strength increases despite the adverse effect of starch on cotton.

In Polyester and PC, tear strength increases by10.8% and 3.8% after the application of 1% Nano clay. The effect of starch is also adverse on polyester and PC (50/50) as it decreases tear strength by 9.6% and 16% respectively. This may be due to the lack of compatibility between starch and polyester. As the weight % of Nano clay increases after 1%, the tear strength decreases.

4.3.1 Observations:

Table 3.2 Tear test results

Fabric Starch (g) Nanoclay (mg) Tear Test

Warp (N)

Tear Test

Weft (N)

Cotton 0.25 Parent 8.85 7.21
8.55 7.01
8.25 7.11
Mean: 8.55 Mean: 7.11
0 8.22 7.01
8.12 7.16
8.32 6.89
Mean: 8.22 Mean: 7.02
1 8.44 5.97
8.44 6.60
8.34 6.73
Mean: 8.40 Mean: 6.43
3 8.95 7.25
8.45 7.73
8.35 7.48
Mean: 8.58 Mean: 7.48
5 8.34 8.04
9.23 7.39
11.33 8.74
Mean: 9.63 Mean: 8.05
Polyester 0.25 Parent 13.66 6.99
14.67 6.48
12.82 6.55
Mean: 13.05 Mean: 6.67
0 12.18 5.72
12.23 5.86
11.39 6.54
Mean: 11.9 Mean: 6.04
1 13.99 7.53
16.31 8.04
13.13 9.35
Mean: 14.47 Mean: 8.30
3 12.95 7.31
14.88 7.51
13.57 7.32
Mean: 13.8 Mean: 7.38
5 14.02 7.21
12.40 7.14
14.62 7.21
Mean: 13.68 Mean: 7.18
Polyester- Cotton (50/50) 0.25 Parent 14.97 11.94
13.53 12.13
14.02 10.33
Mean: 14.17 Mean: 11.46
12.13 10.21
12.41 10.43
12.16 11.21
Mean: 12.2 Mean: 10.6
1 14.97 12.37
15.39 11.70
13.77 11.89
Mean: 14.71 Mean: 11.98
3 12.79 15.47
15.39 14.71
15.64 15.14
Mean: 14.6 Mean: 15.1
5 11.38 11.05
11.56 13.77
11.94 12.52
Mean: 11.62 Mean: 12.44

4.3.2 Graphs:

Graph of tear strength (warp)
Figure 15: Graph of tear strength (warp)
Graph of Tear Strength (weft)
Figure 16: Graph of Tear Strength (weft)

4.4 ABRASION:

Results of Abrasion tests are shown in Table. It is observed that the weight loss of each fabric is increased after the application of Nano clay.

Table 4.3 Abrasion test results

Fabric Starch (G) Nanoclay (Mg) Total Number Of Cycles Weight Before Abrasion Weight loss after Abrasion % weight loss
Cotton 0.25 Parent 30,000 0.148 0.144 2.7%
1 0.150 0.139 7.9%
3 0.151 0.139 8.6%
5 0.154 0.145 6.2%
 

 

Polyester

0.25 Parent 50,000 0.093 0.086 8.1%
1 0.096 0.090 6.6%
3 0.098 0.089 10%
5 0.100 0.089 11%
 

Polyester-

Cotton (50/50)

0.25 Parent 30,000 0.143 0.133 6.9%
1 0.144 0.135 6.6%
3 0.147 0.138 6.1%
5 0.149 0.138 7.9%

4.5 ABSORBENCY:

Results of Absorbency test are shown in Table 11. The absorbency of cotton, polyester and polyester-cotton fabrics have improved. It takes less time for the fabrics to absorb the solution, therefore improving the absorbency. As the concentration of Nano Clay increases, the absorbency of fabrics is improved due to the hydrophilic nature of both the ingredients used in the recipe (starch and Nano clay). Nano clay’s water uptake tendency allows the fabrics to swell, thereby increasing its pore sizes and improving its ability to absorb water.

4.5.1 Observations:

Table 4.4 Wicking test results

FABRIC NANOCLAY (mg) WATER ABSORBENCY (seconds)
Cotton Original 46.54
1 42.74
3 34.8
5 25.13
 

 

Polyester

Original 35.34
1 21
3 15
5 14.6
 

Polyester-Cotton (50/50)

Original 25
1 24.04
3 21.32
5 28.10

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK

5.1 CONCLUSION:

Bentonite Nano Clay is prepared by modifying the existing mechanism used in US Patent 2010/0187474 and reduced its lead time. It is observed that by applying Nano Clay (wt.% 1, 3, 5), tensile strength has increased by 38%, 43.9% and 25.5% for cotton, polyester and PC respectively in the warp direction while it has increased by 118%, 35.5% and 110% in the weft direction respectively.

About 12.6% tear increases in Cotton on a weight loading of 5% Nano clay. However, due to the use of starch, tear strength decreases by 4%. As the weight % of clay increases, tear strength increases despite the adverse effect of starch on cotton.

In Polyester and PC, tear strength increases by 10.8% and 3.8% after the application of 1% Nano clay. The effect of starch is also adverse on polyester and PC (50/50) as it decreases tear strength by 9.6% and 16% respectively. This may be due to the lack of compatibility between starch and polyester. As the weight % of Nano clay increases after 1%, the tear strength decreases.

It is observed that the weight loss of each fabric is increased after the application of Nano clay. The absorbency of cotton, polyester and polyester-cotton fabrics have improved. It takes less time for the fabrics to absorb the solution, therefore improving the absorbency. As the concentration of Nano Clay increases, the absorbency of fabrics is improved due to the hydrophilic nature of both the ingredients used in the recipe (starch and Nano clay). Nano clay’s water uptake tendency allows the fabrics to swell, thereby increasing its pore sizes and improving its ability to absorb water.

The potential applications of this product can be in the biomedical, automobiles, and sportswear.

5.2 FUTURE WORK:

Our work is concentrated on the investigation of mechanical and physical properties of Polyester in comparison with cotton and PC. However, clay can be used to impart properties on the fabrics and convert them into flame retardant, antimicrobial, antistatic, durable press or easy‐care effect,ultraviolet (UV) protection, and self‐cleaning fabrics.

We have observed that by applying Nano clay the thermal stability of fabrics could be improved but due to the short span of time and restrictions of resources we do not perform it.

We applied Nano clay onto the fabrics by using padding method (coating) because according to the literature review it has been observed that the by applying Nano clay through exhaust method, property of thermal stability would suffer so this could be analyse in future too.

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